Posts Tagged: Spamhaus.org


20
Aug 12

Inside the Grum Botnet

KrebsOnSecurity has obtained an exclusive look inside the back-end operations of the recently-destroyed Grum spam botnet. It appears that this crime machine was larger and more complex than many experts had imagined. It also looks like my previous research into the identity of the Grum botmaster was right on target.

The “Stats” page from a Grum botnet control panel show more than 193,000 systems were infected with the malware.

A source in the ISP community who asked to remain anonymous shared a copy of a Web server installation that was used as a controller for the Grum botnet. That controller contained several years’ worth of data on the botnet’s operations, as well as detailed stats on the spam machine’s size just prior to its takedown.

At the time of Grum’s demise in mid-July 2012, it was responsible for sending roughly one in every six spams delivered worldwide, and capable of blasting 18 billion spam emails per day. Anti-spam activists at Spamhaus.org estimated that there were about 136,000 Internet addresses seen sending spam for Grum.

But according to the database maintained on this Grum control server prior to its disconnection in mid-July, more than 193,000 systems were infected with one of three versions of the Grum code, malware that turned host systems into spam-spewing zombies. The system seems to have kept track of infected machines not by Internet address but with a unique identifier for each PC, although it’s not immediately clear how the Grum botnet system derived or verified those identifying fingerprints.

Some of Grum’s email lists. Most lists contained upwards of 20 million addresses.

The Web interface used to control the botnet was called “Zagruska Systems,” (“zagruska” is a transliteration of the Russian word “загрузка,” which means “download”). The HTML code on the server includes the message “Spam Service Coded by -= ( Spiderman).”

The password used to administer the botnet’s Web-based interface was “a28fe103a93d6705d1ce6720dbeb5779″; that’s an MD5 hash of the password “megerasss”. Interestingly, this master password contains the name Gera, which I determined in an earlier investigative story was the nickname used by the Grum botmaster. The name Gera also is used as a title for one of several classes of forged email headers that the botnet had available to send junk mail; other titles for falsified header types included the names “Chase,” “eBay” and “Wachovia,” suggesting a possible phishing angle.

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26
Jan 12

Mr. Waledac: The Peter North of Spamming

Microsoft on Monday named a Russian man as allegedly responsible for running the Kelihos botnet, a spam engine that infected an estimated 40,000 PCs. But closely held data seized from a huge spam affiliate program suggests that the driving force behind Kelihos is a different individual who commanded a much larger spam empire, and who is still coordinating spam campaigns for hire.

Kelihos shares a great deal of code with the infamous Waledac botnet, a far more pervasive threat that infected hundreds of thousands of computers and pumped out tens of billions of junk emails promoting shady online pharmacies. Despite the broad base of shared code between the two malware families, Microsoft classifies them as fundamentally different threats. The company used novel legal techniques to seize control over and shutter both botnets, sucker punching Waledac in early 2010 and taking out Kelihos last fall.

On Monday, Microsoft filed papers with a Virginia court stating that Kelihos was operated by Andrey N. Sabelnikov, a St. Petersburg man who once worked at Russian antivirus and security firm Agnitum. But according to the researcher who shared that intelligence with Microsoft — and confidentially with Krebs On Security weeks prior to Microsoft’s announcement — Sabelnikov is likely only a developer of Kelihos.

“It’s the same code with modifications,” said Brett Stone-Gross, a security analyst who came into possession of the Kelihos source code last year and has studied the two malware families extensively.

Rather, Stone-Gross said, the true coordinator of both Kelihos and Waledac is likely another Russian who is well known to anti-spam activists.

WHO IS SEVERA?

A variety of indicators suggest that the person behind Waledac and later Kelihos is a man named “Peter Severa” — known simply as “Severa” on underground forums. For several years running, Severa has featured in the Top 10 worst spammers list published by anti-spam activists at Spamhaus.org (he currently ranks at #5). Spamhaus alleged that Severa was the Russian partner of convicted U.S. pump-and-dump stock spammer Alan Ralsky, and indeed Peter Severa was indicted by the U.S. Justice Department in a related and ongoing spam investigation.

It turns out that the connection between Waledac and Severa is supported by data leaked in 2010 after hackers broke into the servers of pharmacy spam affiliate program SpamIt. The data also include tantalizing clues about Severa’s real identity.

In multiple instances, Severa gives his full name as “Peter North;” Peter Severa translates literally from Russian as “Peter of the North.” (The nickname may be a nod to the porn star Peter North, which would be fitting given that Peter North the spammer promoted shady pharmacies whose main seller was male enhancement drugs).

Spamdot.biz moderator Severa listing prices to rent his Waledac spam botnet.

According to SpamIt records, Severa brought in revenues of $438,000 and earned commissions of $145,000 spamming rogue online pharmacy sites over a 3-year period. He also was a moderator of Spamdot.biz (pictured at right), a vetted-members-only forum that included many of SpamIt’s top earners, as well as successful spammers/malware writers from other affiliate programs such as EvaPharmacy and Mailien.

Severa seems to have made more money renting his botnet to other spammers. For $200, vetted users could hire his botnet to send 1 million pieces of spam; junk email campaigns touting employment/money mule scams cost $300 per million, and phishing emails could be blasted out through Severa’s botnet for the bargain price of $500 per million.

Spamhaus says Severa’s real name may be Peter Levashov. The information Severa himself provided to SpamIt suggests that Spamhaus’s intelligence is not far off the mark.

Severa had his SpamIt earnings deposited into an account at WebMoney, a virtual currency popular in Russia and Eastern Europe. According to a source that has the ability to look up identity information tied to WebMoney accounts, the account was established in 2001 by someone who entered a WebMoney office and presented the Russian passport #454345544. The passport bore the name of a then 26-year-old from Moscow — Viktor Sergeevich Ivashov.

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11
Aug 10

Spam King Leo Kuvayev Jailed on Child Sex Charges

Undated photo of Leo Kuvayev, courtesy Spamhaus.org.

A man known as one of the world’s top purveyors of junk e-mail has been imprisoned in Russia for allegedly molesting underage girls from a Moscow orphanage, KrebsOnSecurity.com has learned.

According to multiple sources, Leonid “Leo” Aleksandorovich Kuvayev, 38, is being held in a Russian prison awaiting trial on multiple child molestation charges.

Sources in the United States and Russia said that Kuvayev, who holds dual Russian-American citizenship, was alleged to have molested more than 50 young girls he had lured away from one or more local orphanages. He was brought in for questioning after one of the girls reported the incident to Russian police, who reportedly found videotaped evidence of the incidents.

Brandon A. Montgomery, a spokesman for the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) division at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, confirmed that Kuvayev was indicted on Aug. 3, 2009, and arrested on Sept. 15 in Moscow for child molestation charges.

“Our attaché in Moscow is working with the criminal investigative team in Russia, and the investigation is ongoing,” Montgomery said.

The Russian criminal case against Kuvayev, Case. No. 378243, charges him with violations of Russian Criminal Code 134, which prohibits “crimes against sexual inviolability and sexual freedom of the person.” According to sources in Russia familiar with the case but who asked not to be named, Kuvayev is being held in a Moscow jail awaiting trial, which is currently scheduled to start 10 months from the date of his incarceration on Dec. 22, 2009.

Kuvayev in Thailand, 2001

Kuvayev is widely considered one of the world’s most notorious spammers. Anti-spam group Spamhaus.org currently features Kuvayev as #2 on its Top 10 worst spammers list.

In 2005, the attorney general of Massachusetts successfully sued Kuvayev for violations of the CAN-SPAM Act, a law that prohibits the sending of e-mail that includes false or misleading information about the origins of the message, among other restrictions. Armed with a massive trove of spam evidence gathered largely by lawyers and security experts at Microsoft Corp., the state showed that Kuvayev’s operation, an affiliate program known as BadCow, was responsible for blasting tens of millions of junk e-mails peddling everything from pirated software to counterfeit pharmaceuticals and porn.

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7
Apr 10

ISP Privacy Proposal Draws Fire

A proposal to let Internet service providers conceal the contact information for their business customers is drawing fire from a number of experts in the security community, who say the change will make it harder to mitigate the threat from spam and malicious software.

The American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) — one of five regional registries worldwide that is responsible for allocating blocks of Internet addresses – later this month will consider a proposal to ease rules that require ISPs to publish address and phone number information for their business customers.

The idea has support from several ISPs that claim the current policy forces ISPs to effectively publish their customer lists.

“I operate in a very competitive business, and there are instances where I can show that my competitors have gone out and harvested customers’ contact information and used that to try to take those customers away,” said Aaron Wendel, chief technical officer at Kansas City based Wholesale Internet Inc., and the author of the proposal. “I have yet to find another private industry that is not government-related that requires you to make your customer lists publicly available on the Internet.”

Critics of the plan say it will only lead to litigation and confusion, while aiding spammers and other shady actors who obtain blocks of addresses by posing as legitimate businesses.

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