Posts Tagged: spyeye


6
Jun 11

Criminal Classifieds: Malware Writers Wanted

The global economy may be struggling to create new jobs, but the employment outlook for criminally-inclined computer programmers has never been brighter. I’ve spent some time lurking on shadowy, online underground forums, and lately I’ve seen a proliferation of banner ads apparently placed by criminal gangs looking for talented programmers to help make existing malware stealthier and more feature-rich.

Many of the ads highlight job openings for coders who are skilled in devising custom “crypters,” programs designed to change the appearance of known malware so that it goes undetected by anti-virus software. Anti-virus signatures are based on snippets of code found within known malware samples, and crypters can try to help hide or obfuscate the code. When anti-virus firms update their products with the ability to detect and flag files that are shrouded by this layer of obfuscation, malware writers tweak their creations in a bid to further evade the new detection mechanisms.

The composite banner ad pictured above is a solicitation from a crime gang that offers a base salary of $2,000 per month in exchange for a “long-term partnership” creating crypters that include customer support. The ads lead to a sign-up page (below) where interested coders can leave their résumé and contact information, and state why they think they are qualified for the position.

The Russian text in the above ad translates to:

“We invite you to join our team of crypto-programmers, including programmers with no experience in this field.

We offer:

* Base salary from $2,000 per month, with an increase in salary, depending on the quality and timeliness of your work.
* Payments are made ​​weekly.
* Long-term cooperation (with many programmers, we have been in business for more than two years).

Please fill in your application only if you understand what is at stake. Thank you.”

Other ads, like the one below, seek qualified candidates for similar jobs with a promise of as much as $5,000 per month for creating custom crypters and providing customer support.

There also appears to be a high demand for programmers who can code so-called “Web injects,” plug-ins for malware kits like the ZeuS and SpyEye trojans, and they’re designed to inject custom content into a Web browser when the victim browses to certain sites, such as a specific bank’s login page.

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2
May 11

‘Weyland-Yutani’ Crime Kit Targets Macs for Bots

A new crimeware kit for sale on the criminal underground makes it a simple point-and-click exercise to develop malicious software designed to turn Mac OSX computers into remotely controllable zombie bots. According to the vendor of this kit, it is somewhat interchangeable with existing crimeware kits made to attack Windows-based PCs.

The Mac malware builder in action.

KrebsOnSecurity has spilled a great deal of digital ink covering the damage wrought by ZeuS and SpyEye, probably the most popular crimeware kits built for Windows. A crimeware kit is a do-it-yourself package of tools that allow users to create custom versions of a malicious software strain capable of turning machines into bots that can be remotely controlled and harvested of financial and personal data. The bot code, generated by the crimeware kit’s “builder” component, typically is distributed via social engineering attacks in email and social networking sites, or is foisted by an exploit pack like Eleonore or Blackhole, which use hacked Web sites and browser flaws to quietly install the malware. Crimeware kits also come with a Web-based administration panel that allows the customer to manage and harvest data from infected PCs.

Crimekit makers have focused almost exclusively on the Windows platform, but today Danish IT security firm CSIS Security Group blogged about a new kit named the Weyland-Yutani BOT that is being marketed as the first of its kind to attack the Mac OS X platform.

The seller of this crimeware kit claims his product supports form-grabbing in Firefox and Chrome, and says he plans to develop a Linux version and one for the iPad in the months ahead. The price? $1,000, with payment accepted only through virtual currencies Liberty Reserve or WebMoney.

The CSIS blog post contains a single screen shot of this kit’s bot builder, and references a demo video but doesn’t show it. I wanted to learn more about this kit, and so contacted the seller via a Russian language forum where he was advertising his wares.

The author said he is holding off on including Safari form-grabbing capability for now, complaining that there are “too many problems in that browser.” Still, he was kind enough to share a copy of a video that shows the kit’s builder and admin panel in action. Click the video link below to check that out.

ZeuS and SpyEye are popular in part because they support a variety of so-called “Web injects,” third-party plug-ins that let botmasters manipulate the content that victims see in their Web browsers. The most popular Web injects are designed to slightly alter the composition of various online banking Web sites in a bid to trick the victim customer into supplying additional identifying information that can be used later on to more fully compromise or hijack the account. According to the author, Web injects developed for ZeuS and SpyEye also are interchangeable with this Mac crimekit. “They need to be formatted and tagged, but yes, you can use Zeus injects with this bot,” he told me in an instant message conversation.

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26
Apr 11

SpyEye Targets Opera, Google Chrome Users

The latest version of the SpyEye trojan includes new capability specifically designed to steal sensitive data from Windows users surfing the Internet with the Google Chrome and Opera Web browsers.

The author of the SpyEye trojan formerly sold the crimeware-building kit on a number of online cybercrime forums, but has recently limited his showroom displays to a handful of highly vetted underground communities. KrebsOnSecurity.com recently chatted with a member of one of these communities who has purchased a new version of SpyEye. Screenshots from the package show that the latest rendition comes with the option for new “form grabbing” capabilities targeting Chrome and Opera users.

SpyEye component in version 1.3.34 shows form grabbing options for Chrome and Opera

Trojans like ZeuS and SpyEye have the built-in ability to keep logs of every keystroke a victim types on his or her keyboard, but this kind of tracking usually creates too much extraneous data for the attackers, who mainly are interested in financial information such as credit card numbers and online banking credentials. Form grabbers accomplish this by stripping out any data that victims enter in specific Web site form fields, snarfing and recording that data before it can be encrypted and sent to the Web site requesting the information.

Both SpyEye and ZeuS have had the capability to do form grabbing against Internet Explorer and Firefox for some time, but this is the first time I’ve seen any major banking trojans claim the ability to target Chrome and Opera users with this feature.

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9
Mar 11

SpyEye, ZeuS Users Target Tracker Sites

Crooks who create botnets with the help of crimeware kits SpyEye and ZeuS are actively venting their frustration with two Web services that help ISPs and companies block infected machines from communicating with control networks run by these botmasters. The lengths to which established cyber criminals are willing to go to disable and discredit these anti-fraud services provide convincing proof that the services are working as designed, and that the bad guys are suffering financially as a result.

The creations of Swiss security expert Roman Hüssy, ZeusTracker and its sister service SpyEye Tracker have endured countless distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks from botmasters apparently retaliating for having their network infrastructure listed by these services. At one point, someone wrote a fake suicide in Hüssy’s name and distributed it to his family and friends, prompting local police to rouse him from slumber to investigate his well-being. But, those attacks haven’t deterred Hüssy or sidelined his services.

Now, the attackers are beginning to consider stealthier and more diabolical ways to strike back. A  series of discussions on an uber-exclusive Russian language forum that caters to identity and credit card thieves reveal that botmasters are becoming impatient in their search for a solution that puts Hüssy and/or his tracking services out of commission once and for all (click the images in this post twice to read along).

“DDoSing doesn’t bring satisfactory results. We’re now working on mapping his entire infrastructure, flag his scripts,” writes a user named Sal, who claims to specialize in providing bulletproof servers. “Now we will engage in a pinpointed assault. This should be cheaper + should bring results at least temporarily….Let’s brainstorm here.”

Other members join the discussion. One suggests pooling funds to hire a hitman. “It’s easier and more productive to just use a joint fund to hire a killer, and story’s over,” writes user “Femar.” Another forum member named “Deviant” recommends dosing Hüssy with organic mercury. “Dimethylmercury – the fluid has no color. One drop on your hand will penetrate thick latex gloves. Lethal result is guaranteed within one month.”

But forum members seemed to coalesce around an idea for seeding the ZeuS and SpyEye configuration files (those that list the location of key parts of the botnet, such as the place to deposit stolen data) with legitimate Web sites. Their stated goal? To cause SpyEye Tracker and ZeuS Tracker to flag legitimate sites as hostile, and thereby to lose credibility with ISPs that rely on the trackers.

I caught up with Hüssy via instant message yesterday, and asked whether he’d seen any SpyEye or ZeuS configuration files seeded with legitimate sites. He just laughed.

“ZeusTracker checks if a command and control server is really up before adding it to the blocklist,” Hüssy said. “These guys have no clue how ZeusTracker works.”

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3
Feb 11

Revisiting the SpyEye/ZeuS Merger

In October 2010, I discovered that the authors of the SpyEye and ZeuS banking Trojans — once competitors in the market for botnet creation and management kits — were planning to kill further development of ZeuS and fuse the two malware families into one supertrojan. Initially, I heard some skepticism from folks in the security community about this. But three months later, security experts are starting to catch glimpses of this new hybrid Trojan in the wild, with the author(s) shipping a series of beta releases that include updated features on a nearly-daily basis.

It probably didn’t help that the first report of a blended version of SpyEye/ZeuS (referred to as SpyZeuS for the remainder of this post) — detailed in a McAfee blog post — turned out to be a scam. But a little more a week ago, Trend Micro spotted snapshots and details of SpyZeuS components, noting that the author appears to have received help from other criminals in polishing this latest release; in particular, an add-on that grabs credit card numbers from hacked PCs, and a plugin designed to attack the anti-Trojan tool Rapport from Trusteer. (Trusteer’s Amit Klein addresses this component in a blog post here).

Seculert, a new threat alert service started by former RSA fraud expert Aviv Raff, includes some screen shots of the administrative panel of SpyZeuS that show the author trying to appeal to users of both Trojans, by allowing customers to control and update their botnets using either the traditional ZeuS or SpyEye Web interface.

The hybrid SpyZeuS Trojan lets users interact with bots via the ZeuS control panel (left) or the SpyEye interface.

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8
Nov 10

Keeping an Eye on the SpyEye Trojan

Last month, I published evidence suggesting that future development of the ZeuS banking Trojan was being merged with that of the up-and-coming SpyEye Trojan. Since then, a flood of new research has been published about SpyEye, including a new Web site that helps track the location of SpyEye control networks worldwide.

Roman Hüssy, the curator of Zeustracker — a site that has spotlighted ZeuS activity around the globe since early 2009 — late last week launched SpyEye Tracker, a sister service designed to help Internet service providers keep tabs on miscreants using SpyEye (take care with the IP address links listed at this service, because they can lead to live, malicious files).

Hüssy said he’s not convinced that the SpyEye crimeware kit will usurp the mighty ZeuS. “Why should they give up something which works and pay for a new tool?” he said in an online chat with KrebsOnSecurity.com. Instead, Hüssy said he’s launching the new tracking service to help prevent that shift.

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24
Oct 10

SpyEye v. ZeuS Rivalry Ends in Quiet Merger

Leading malware developers within the cyber crime community have conspired to terminate development of the infamous ZeuS banking Trojan and to merge its code base with that of the up-and-coming SpyEye Trojan, new evidence suggests. The move appears to be aimed at building a superior e-banking threat whose sale is restricted to a more exclusive and well-heeled breed of cyber crook.

Underground forums are abuzz with rumors that the ZeuS author — a Russian hacker variously known by the monikers “Slavik” and “Monstr” — is no longer planning to maintain the original commercial crimeware kit.

According to numerous hacker forums, the source code for ZeuS recently was transferred to the developer of the SpyEye Trojan, a rival malware maker who drew attention to himself by dubbing his creation the “ZeuS Killer.” The upstart banking Trojan author constantly claimed that his bot creation kit bested ZeuS in functionality and form (SpyEye made headlines this year when investigators discovered it automatically searched for and removed ZeuS from infected PCs before installing itself).

In an era when it has become a truism to say that malicious hackers seek riches over renown, the SpyEye author — a coder known as either “Harderman” and “Gribodemon” on different forums — appears to have sought both, boasting on numerous forums about the greatness of his malware, using flashy logos to promote it (see below), and granting an interview with security researchers about the riches it will bring him. Although the ZeuS author chose to license his botnet creation kit to private groups through multiple intermediaries, the SpyEye creator has peddled his kit directly to buyers via online forums and instant messages.

But — very recently — the public rivalry died down, and forum members on different sites where Harderman maintained a presence began complaining that they could no longer reach him for support issues. In an Oct. 11 message to one of the UnderWeb’s most exclusive hacker forums, Harderman can be seen breaking the news to fellow forum members. A screen shot of that message is below, followed by a translated version of it:

Good day!

I will service the Zeus product beginning today and from here on. I have been given the source codes free of charge so that clients who bought the software are not left without tech support. Slavik doesn’t support the product anymore, he removed the source code from his [computer], he doesn’t sell [it], and has no relationship to it. He also doesn’t conduct any business on the Internet and in a few days his contact [information] will not be active.

He asked me to pass on that he was happy to work with everyone. If you have any unresolved issues remaining [there is a] request to get in touch with him as soon as possible.

All clients who bought the software from Slavik will be serviced from me on the same conditions as previously. [I] request that [you] come directly to me regarding all issues.

Thanks to everyone for [your] attention!

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17
Sep 10

SpyEye Botnet’s Bogus Billing Feature

Miscreants who control large groupings of hacked PCs or “botnets” are always looking for ways to better monetize their crime machines, and competition among rival bot developers is leading to devious innovations. The SpyEye botnet kit, for example, now not only allows botnet owners to automate the extraction of credit card and other financial data from infected systems, but it also can be configured to use those credentials to generate bogus sales at online stores set up by the botmaster.

The "billing" section from SpyEye admin pageAs I noted in a post in April, SpyEye is a software package that promises to make running a botnet a point-and-click exercise. A unique component of SpyEye is a feature called “billinghammer,” which automates the purchase of worthless or copycat software using credit card data stolen from victims of the botnet.

The SpyEye author explained this feature in detail on several hacking forums where his kit is sold, even including a video that walks customers through the process of setting it up. Basically, the scam works like this: The botmaster acquires some freeware utility or legitimate program, renames it, claims it as his own and places it up for sale at one of several pre-selected software sales and distribution platforms, including ClickBank, FastSpring, eSellerate, SetSystems, or Shareit. The botmaster then logs in to his SpyEye control panel (picture above), feeds it a list of credit card numbers and corresponding cardholder data, after which SpyEye opens an Internet Explorer Window and — at user-defined intervals — starts auto-filling the proper fields at the botmaster’s online store and making purchases.

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1
Apr 10

SpyEye vs. ZeuS Rivalry

It’s common for malware writers to taunt one another with petty insults nested within their respective creations. Competing crime groups also often seek to wrest infected machines from one another. A very public turf war between those responsible for maintaining the Netsky and Bagle worms back in 2005, for example, caused a substantial increase in the volume of threats generated by both gangs.

The latest rivalry appears to be budding between the authors of the Zeus Trojan — a crime kit used by a large number of cyber thieves — and “SpyEye,” a relatively new kit on the block that is taking every opportunity to jeer at, undercut and otherwise siphon market share from the mighty Zeus.

Symantec alluded to this in a February blog post that highlighted a key selling point of the SpyEye crimeware kit:  If the malware created with SpyEye lands on a computer that is already infected with Zeus, it will hijack and/or remove the Zeus infection.

Now, just a few months later, the SpyEye author is releasing a new update (v. 1.1) that he claims includes the ability to inject content into Firefox and Internet Explorer browsers, just as Zeus does (this screen shot shows the result of a demo configuration file on the left, which instructs the malware to inject SpyEye and “Zeuskiller”  banner ads into a live Bank of America Web site). It is precisely this injection ability that allows thieves using Zeus to defeat the security tokens that many banks require commercial customers to use for online banking.

The new version comes as the Zeus author is pushing out his own updates (v. 1.4), along with a hefty price tag hike. The old Zeus kit started at around $4,000, while the base price of the newer version is double that. According to research from Atlanta-based security firm SecureWorks, Zeus plug-ins that offer additional functionality raise the price even more. For example:

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