Posts Tagged: Liberty Reserve


23
Jul 12

DoItQuick: Fast Domains for Dirty Deeds

A new service offered in the cybercriminal underground is geared toward spammers, scammers and malware purveyors interested in mass-registering dozens of dodgy domains in one go.

DoItQuick offers mass registration of malware domains.

The service — doitquick.net — will auto-register up to 15 domains simultaneously, choosing randomly named domains unless the customer specifies otherwise. DoItQuick sells two classes of domains: “white” domains that are “guaranteed” to stay registered for at least a year; and “black” domains that customers can use for illicit purposes and expect to last between 2 and 30 days before they are canceled.

This service makes it quite clear why customers might prefer the “black” domain registration service: “Domains for black deeds – these domains are registered for limited terms, from 2 to 30 days (average duration is about a week). Such domains are used for black and gray deeds. Low prices, fast registration! It is ideal for redirects, exploit packs, traffic, flood, botnets and other similar stuff. Domain names are checked for getting into blacklists, trackers and Spamhaus.”

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24
May 12

WHMCS Breach May Be Only Tip of the Trouble

A recent breach at billing and support software provider WHMCS that exposed a half million customer usernames, passwords — and in some cases credit cards — may turn out to be the least of the company’s worries. According to information obtained by KrebsOnSecurity.com, for the past four months hackers have been selling an exclusive zero-day flaw that they claim lets intruders break into Web hosting firms that rely on the software.

WHMCS is a suite of billing and support software used mainly by Web hosting providers. Following an extended period of downtime on Monday, the privately-owned British software firm disclosed that hackers had broken in and stolen 1.7 gigabytes worth of customer data, and deleted a backlog of orders, tickets and other files from the firm’s server.

The company’s founder, Matt Pugh, posted a statement saying the firm had fallen victim to a social engineering attack in which a miscreant was able to impersonate Pugh to WHMCS’s own Web hosting provider, and trick the provider into giving up the WHMCS’s administrative credentials.

“Following an initial investigation I can report that what occurred today was the result of a social engineering attack,” Pugh wrote. “The person was able to impersonate myself with our web hosting company, and provide correct answers to their verification questions. And thereby gain access to our client account with the host, and ultimately change the email and then request a mailing of the access details.”

Meanwhile, WHMCS’s user forums have been and remain under a constant denial-of-service attack, and the company is urging customers to change their passwords.

As bad as things are right now for WHMCS, this rather public incident may be only part of the company’s security woes. For several years, I have been an unwelcome guest on an exclusive underground forum that I consider one of the few remaining and clueful hacking forums on the Underweb today. I’ve been kicked out of it several times, which is why I’m not posting any forum screenshots here.

Update, May 29, 12:35 p.m. ET: WHMCS just issued a patch to fix an SQL injection vulnerability that may be related to this 0day. See this thread from Pugh for more information.

Original post:

In February, a trusted and verified member of that forum posted a thread titled,” WHMCS 0-day,” saying he was selling a previously undocumented and unfixed critical security vulnerability in all version of WHMCS that provides direct access to the administrator’s password. From that hacker’s sales thread [link added]:

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8
Mar 12

Banking on Badb in the Underweb

Underground Web sites can be a useful barometer for the daily volume of criminal trade in goods like stolen credit card numbers and hijacked PayPal or eBay accounts. And if the current low prices at one of Underweb’s newer and more brazen card shops are indicative of a trend, the market for these commodities has never been more cutthroat.

Visa, Amex cards for sale at Badb.su

Badb.su is distinguishable from dozens of underground carding shops chiefly by its slick interface and tiny domain name, which borrows on the pseudonym and notoriety of the Underweb’s most recognizable carder. It’s difficult to say whether “Badb” himself would have endorsed the use of his brand for this particular venture, but it seems unlikely: The man alleged by U.S. authorities to be Badb — 29-year-old Vladislav Anatolievich Horohorin — has been in a French prison since his arrest there in 2010. Authorities believe Horohorin is one of the founding members of CarderPlanet, a site that helped move millions of stolen accounts. He remains jailed in France, fighting extradition to the United States (more about his case in an upcoming story).

Badb.su’s price list shows that purloined American Express and Discover accounts issued to Americans cost between $2.50 and $3 apiece, with MasterCard and Visa accounts commanding slightly lower prices ($2-$3). Cards of any type issued by banks in the United Kingdom or European Union fetch between $4-$7 each, while accounts from Canadian financial institutions cost between $3 to $5 a pop.

The site also sells verified PayPal and eBay accounts. Verified PayPal accounts with credit cards and bank accounts attached to them go for between 2-3$, while the same combination + access to the account holder’s email inbox increases the price by $2. PayPal accounts that are associated with bank and/or credit accounts and include a balance are sold for between 2 and 10 percent of the available balance. That rate is considerably lower than the last PayPal underground shop I reviewed, which charged 8 to 12 percent of the total compromised account balance.

Verified PayPal accounts with positive balances sell for between 2-10% of the available balance.

Ebay auction accounts are priced according to the number of positive “feedback” points that each victim account possesses (feedback is the core of eBay’s reputation system, whereby members evaluate their buying and selling experiences with other members). eBay accounts with fewer than 75 feedback history sell for $2 each, while those with higher levels of feedback command prices of $5 and higher apiece, because these accounts are more likely to be perceived as trustworthy by other eBay members.

But don’t count on paying for any of these goods with a credit card; Badb.su accepts payment only through virtual currencies such as Liberty Reserve and WebMoney.

Badb.su, like many other card shops, offers an a-la-carte, card-checking service that allows buyers to gauge the validity of stolen cards before or after purchasing them. Typically, these services will test stolen card numbers using a hijacked merchant account that initiates tiny charges or so-called pre-authorization checks against the card; if the charge or pre-auth clears, the card-checking service issues a “valid” response for the checked card number.

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11
Jan 12

Flying the Fraudster Skies

Given the heightened security surrounding air travel these days, it may be hard to believe that fraudsters would try to board a plane using stolen tickets. But incredibly, there are a number of criminal travel agencies doing business in the underground, and judging from the positive feedback left by patrons, business appears to be booming.

Ad above says: Maldives Turkey Goa Bora-Bora, Carribes, Any country, any hotels and resorts of the world.

The tickets often are purchased at the last minute and placed under the criminal buyer’s real name. The reservations are made using either stolen credit cards or hijacked accounts belonging to independent contractors in the travel industry.  Customers are charged a fraction of the cost of the tickets and/or reservations, typically between 25 and 35 percent of the actual cost.

Criminal travel services are contributing to a recent spike in airline ticket fraud. In December, the Airlines Reporting Corporation, an industry clearinghouse, said it was seeing a marked increase in unauthorized tickets issued. Between August and November of last year, 113 incidents of fraudulently booked tickets were reported to ARC, up from just 18 such incidents reported in all of 2010. The aggregate face value of the unauthorized tickets in 2011 was more than $1 million. The ARC believes the increase in fraud is mainly due to an surge in phishing emails targeting travel agency employees and contractors.

Some of the travel agencies in the criminal underground are full-service, pitching package deals that  include airfare, car rentals and even hotel stays. A hacker using the nickname “Yoshimo” on one prominent fraudster forum offers “80-95 percent working flight tickets in most countries (some restrictions apply),” for 25 percent of the original price, and 40 percent of the price for carded hotel stays and car rentals. He has been offering this service for more than two years, and has at least 275 positive reviews from current and former customers.

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8
Nov 11

How Much Is Your Identity Worth?

How much does it cost for thieves to discover the data that unlocks identity for creditors, such as your Social Security number, birthday, or mother’s maiden name? Would it surprise you to learn that crooks are selling this data to any and all comers for pennies on the dollar?

superget.info home page

At least, that’s the going price at superget.info. This fraudster-friendly site has been operating since July 2010, and markets the ability to look up SSNs, birthdays and other sensitive information on millions of Americans. Registration is free, and accounts are funded via WebMoney and Liberty Reserve, virtual currencies that are popular in the cybercriminal underground.

Superget lets users search for specific individuals by name, city, and state. Each “credit” costs USD$1, and a successful hit on a Social Security number or date of birth costs 3 credits each. The more credits you buy, the cheaper the searches are per credit: Six credits cost $4.99; 35 credits cost $20.99, and $100.99 buys you 230 credits. Customers with special needs can avail themselves of the “reseller plan,” which promises 1,500 credits for $500.99, and 3,500 credits for $1000.99.

“Our Databases are updated EVERY DAY,” the site’s owner enthuses. “About 99% nearly 100% US people could be found, more than any sites on the internet now.”

Customers who aren’t choosy about the identities they’re stealing can get a real bargain. Among the most trafficked commodities in the hacker underground are packages called “fullz infos,” which include the full identity information on dozens or hundreds of individuals.

The table at the right shows the bulk lookup price-per-identity in this class. In the “Fullz Info USA Type A” package, each record includes the subject’s first name, last name, middle name, email address, email password, physical address, phone number, date of birth, Social Security number, drivers license number, bank name, bank account number, bank routing number, the victim employer’s name, and the number of years that individual has been at his or her current job. The proprietor of this shop says he has more than 330,000 records of this type, and is adding 300-400 new records each day.

If you want the mother’s maiden name included in each of the bulk records, you’ll need to select “Fullz Info USA Type B”; the site’s owner says this package includes data from an older database, and perhaps that explains why the prices for these identities (pictured at left) are so much lower than those in the Type A category. The price in Type B starts at 16 cents per identity, and falls as low as nine cents per record for those requesting more than 20,000 fullz from this category.

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13
Oct 11

ATM Skimmer Powered by MP3 Player

Almost a year ago, I wrote about ATM skimmers made of parts from old MP3 players. Since then, I’ve noticed quite a few more ads for these MP3-powered skimmers in the criminal underground, perhaps because audio skimmers allow fraudsters to sell lucrative service contracts along with their theft devices.

Using audio to capture credit and debit card data is not a new technique, but it is becoming vogue: Square, an increasingly popular credit card reader built for the iPhone, works by plugging into the headphone jack on the iPhone and converting credit card data stored on the card into audio files.

An audio skimmer for a Diebold ATM.

The device pictured here is a card skimmer designed to fit over the card acceptance slot on a Diebold Opteva 760, one of the most common ATMs around. The green circuit board on the left was taken from an MP3 player (no idea which make or model). When a card is slid past the magnetic reader (the small black rectangle at the end of the black and red wires near the center of the picture), the MP3 player “hears” the data stored on the card’s magnetic stripe, and records it as an audio file to a tiny embedded flash memory device.

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12
Aug 11

Vendor of Stolen Bank Cards Hacked

I recently wrote about an online service that was selling access to stolen credit and debit card data. That post received a lot of attention, but criminal bazaars are a dime a dozen. The real news is that few of these fraud shops are secure enough to keep their stock of stolen data from being pilfered by thieves.

Card shopping options at mn0g0.su

A prime example is the shop mn0g0.su (“mnogo” is a transliteration of много, which means “many” in Russian). This online store, launched in January 2011, lets customers shop for stolen card data by bank issuer, victim ZIP code, and card type. A source who enjoys ruining criminal projects said he stumbled upon mn0g0.su’s back-end database by accident; the site was backing up its cache of stolen card data to a third party server that was wide open and unencrypted.

Included in the database are more than 81,000 sets of credit and debit card numbers, along with their associated expiration dates and card security code. Each listing also includes the owner’s name, address and phone number and/or email address. The Social Security number, mother’s maiden name and date of birth are available for some cardholders. The site does not accept credit card payments; shopper accounts are funded by deposits from “virtual currencies,” such as WebMoney and LibertyReserve.

It’s not clear how or when these card numbers were stolen. Fraudulent card shops purchase data in bulk from multiple suppliers, most likely from small-time fraudsters who use automated tools to hack e-commerce stores. The data is inserted into the database in varying formats. For example, one batch of card information for sale includes email addresses in lieu of phone numbers, and all of the victim cardholders from that batch have physical addresses in the United Kingdom.

Just for amusement, I searched for my last name, and was surprised to find four people with the last name “Krebs” whose card information was included in the database (none are known relatives).

Not only did mn0g0.su leak all of the credit and debit cards it had for sale, but it also spilled its own “customer” list: The email addresses, IP addresses, ICQ numbers, usernames and passwords of more than 4,300 mn0g0.su shoppers were included in the exposed database backup. The customer passwords were better protected than the credit card numbers. The passwords are encrypted with a salted SHA256 hash, although a decent set of password-cracking tools could probably decipher 50-75 percent of the hashed passwords if given enough time.

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2
May 11

‘Weyland-Yutani’ Crime Kit Targets Macs for Bots

A new crimeware kit for sale on the criminal underground makes it a simple point-and-click exercise to develop malicious software designed to turn Mac OSX computers into remotely controllable zombie bots. According to the vendor of this kit, it is somewhat interchangeable with existing crimeware kits made to attack Windows-based PCs.

The Mac malware builder in action.

KrebsOnSecurity has spilled a great deal of digital ink covering the damage wrought by ZeuS and SpyEye, probably the most popular crimeware kits built for Windows. A crimeware kit is a do-it-yourself package of tools that allow users to create custom versions of a malicious software strain capable of turning machines into bots that can be remotely controlled and harvested of financial and personal data. The bot code, generated by the crimeware kit’s “builder” component, typically is distributed via social engineering attacks in email and social networking sites, or is foisted by an exploit pack like Eleonore or Blackhole, which use hacked Web sites and browser flaws to quietly install the malware. Crimeware kits also come with a Web-based administration panel that allows the customer to manage and harvest data from infected PCs.

Crimekit makers have focused almost exclusively on the Windows platform, but today Danish IT security firm CSIS Security Group blogged about a new kit named the Weyland-Yutani BOT that is being marketed as the first of its kind to attack the Mac OS X platform.

The seller of this crimeware kit claims his product supports form-grabbing in Firefox and Chrome, and says he plans to develop a Linux version and one for the iPad in the months ahead. The price? $1,000, with payment accepted only through virtual currencies Liberty Reserve or WebMoney.

The CSIS blog post contains a single screen shot of this kit’s bot builder, and references a demo video but doesn’t show it. I wanted to learn more about this kit, and so contacted the seller via a Russian language forum where he was advertising his wares.

The author said he is holding off on including Safari form-grabbing capability for now, complaining that there are “too many problems in that browser.” Still, he was kind enough to share a copy of a video that shows the kit’s builder and admin panel in action. Click the video link below to check that out.

ZeuS and SpyEye are popular in part because they support a variety of so-called “Web injects,” third-party plug-ins that let botmasters manipulate the content that victims see in their Web browsers. The most popular Web injects are designed to slightly alter the composition of various online banking Web sites in a bid to trick the victim customer into supplying additional identifying information that can be used later on to more fully compromise or hijack the account. According to the author, Web injects developed for ZeuS and SpyEye also are interchangeable with this Mac crimekit. “They need to be formatted and tagged, but yes, you can use Zeus injects with this bot,” he told me in an instant message conversation.

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8
Apr 11

Is Your Computer Listed “For Rent”?

When it’s time to book a vacation or a quick getaway, many of us turn to travel reservation sites like Expedia, Travelocity and other comparison services. But there’s a cybercrime-friendly booking service that is not well-known. When cyber crooks want to get away — with a crime — increasingly they are turning to underground online booking services that make it easy for crooks to rent hacked PCs that can help them ply their trade anonymously.

We often hear about hacked, remote-controlled PCs or “bots” being used to send spam or to host malicious Web sites, but seldom do security researchers delve into the mechanics behind one of the most basic uses for a bot: To serve as a node in an anonymization service that allows paying customers to proxy their Internet connections through one or more compromised systems.

As I noted in a Washington Post column in 2008, “this type of service is especially appealing to criminals looking to fleece bank accounts at institutions that conduct rudimentary Internet address checks to ensure that the person accessing an account is indeed logged on from the legitimate customer’s geographic region, as opposed to say, Odessa, Ukraine.” Scammers have been using proxies forever it seems, but it’s interesting that it is so easy to find victims, once you are a user of the anonymization service.

Here’s an overview of one of the more advanced anonymity networks on the market, an invite-only subscription service marketed on several key underground cyber crime forums.

When I tested this service, it had more than 4,100 bot proxies available in 75 countries, although the bulk of the hacked PCs being sold or rented were in the United States and the United Kingdom. Also, the number of available proxies fluctuates daily, peaking during normal business hours in the United States. Drilling down into the U.S. map (see image above), users can select proxies by state, or use the “advanced search” box, which allows customers to select bots based on city, IP range, Internet provider, and connection speed. This service also includes a fairly active Russian-language customer support forum. Customers can use the service after paying a one-time $150 registration fee (security deposit?) via a virtual currency such as WebMoney or Liberty Reserve. After that, individual botted systems can be rented for about a dollar a day, or “purchased” for exclusive use for slightly more.

I tried to locate some owners of the hacked machines being rented via this service. Initially this presented a challenge because the majority of the proxies listed are compromised PCs hooked up to home or small business cable modem or DSL connections. As you can see from the screenshot below, the only identifying information for these systems was the IP address and host name. And although so-called “geo-location” services can plot the approximate location of an Internet address, these services are not exact and are sometimes way off.

I started poking through the listings for proxies that had meaningful host names, such as the domain name of a business. It wasn’t long before I stumbled upon the Web site for The Securities Group LLC, a Memphis, Tenn. based privately held broker/dealer firm specializing in healthcare partnerships with physicians. According to the company’s site, “TSG has raised over $100,000,000 having syndicated over 200 healthcare projects including whole hospital exemptions, ambulatory surgery centers, surgical hospitals, PET Imaging facilities, CATH labs and a prostate cancer supplement LLC with up to 400 physician investors.” The proxy being sold by the anonymization service was tied to the Internet address of TSG’s email server, and to the Web site for the Kirby Pines Retirement Community, also in Memphis.

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21
Jan 11

Ready for Cyberwar?

Amid all of the media and public fascination with threats like Stuxnet and weighty terms such as “cyberwar,” it’s easy to overlook the more humdrum and persistent security threats, such as Web site vulnerabilities. But none of these distractions should excuse U.S. military leaders from making sure their Web sites aren’t trivially hackable by script kiddies.

Security vendor Imperva today blogged about a hacker who claims to have access to and control over several top dot-gov, dot-mil and dot-edu Web sites. I’ve seen some of the back-end evidence of his hacks, so it doesn’t seem like he’s making this up. Perhaps out of deference to the federal government, the Imperva folks blocked out the best part of that screen shot — the actual names of the Web site domains that this hacker is selling. For example, the hacker is advertising full control and root access to cecom.army.mil, a site whose stated purpose is “to develop, acquire, provide and sustain world-class…systems and Battle Command capabilities for the joint warfighter.” It can be yours, for just $499 (sorry, no credit cards accepted; only the virtual currency Liberty Reserve).

Here is an unredacted (well, mostly) shot of that site:

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